Section 112A – Tax on Long-Term Capital Gains on Equity Shares and Mutual Funds:
Section 112A deals with the taxation of long-term capital gains (LTCG) on the sale of certain specified assets, primarily equity shares in a company or units of an equity-oriented mutual fund. Here’s a detailed breakdown:
- Applicability: This section applies to individuals and Hindu Undivided Families (HUFs) who earn long-term capital gains from the sale of equity shares in a company or units of an equity-oriented mutual fund.
- Definition of Long-Term Capital Asset: For equity shares and equity-oriented mutual funds, an asset is considered a long-term capital asset if it is held for a minimum of 12 months.
- Tax Rate: Long-term capital gains from the sale of these assets are taxed at a special rate of 10% if the gains exceed Rs. 1 lakh. This is known as the Long-Term Capital Gains Tax (LTCG Tax).
- Grandfathering Clause: To safeguard existing investors, the gains accrued up to January 31, 2018, are “grandfathered.” This means that for calculating the taxable LTCG, the cost of acquisition is taken as the higher of the actual purchase price or the fair market value as of January 31, 2018. This helps in excluding gains made before the introduction of this provision from taxation.
- Indexation Benefit: Unlike other long-term capital gains, the benefit of indexation (adjusting the cost for inflation) is not available under Section 112A. The 10% tax rate is applied directly to the gains.
- Exemptions: There are no exemptions or deductions available against the LTCG tax under this section. The 10% tax rate is applied on the entire LTCG amount exceeding Rs. 1 lakh.
Section 111A – Tax on Short-Term Capital Gains on Equity Shares and Mutual Funds:
Section 111A pertains to the taxation of short-term capital gains (STCG) on the sale of specified assets, primarily equity shares in a company or units of an equity-oriented mutual fund. Here’s a more detailed explanation:
- Applicability: This section applies to individuals and HUFs who earn short-term capital gains from the sale of equity shares in a company or units of an equity-oriented mutual fund.
- Definition of Short-Term Capital Asset: An asset is considered a short-term capital asset if it is held for 12 months or less.
- Tax Rate: Short-term capital gains from these assets are taxed at a flat rate of 15%. This rate is applicable regardless of the total income of the taxpayer.
- No Indexation: Unlike long-term capital gains, short-term capital gains do not qualify for the benefit of indexation. The gains are taxed without adjusting for inflation.
- Holding Period: The 12-month holding period is crucial for determining whether gains are short-term or long-term. If the asset is held for more than 12 months, it falls under the purview of Section 112A and is subject to the LTCG tax.
In summary, Sections 112A and 111A of the Income Tax Act, 1961, were introduced to simplify the taxation of capital gains from equity investments and mutual funds. These sections provide clarity on tax rates based on the holding period, with Section 112A dealing with long-term capital gains and Section 111A addressing short-term capital gains. However, it’s important to consult a tax professional for personalized advice based on your financial circumstances and investment portfolio.